The Tory government in the UK is seriously considering the possibility of selling the publicly owned Channel 4 TV corporation. Unlike the BBC, Channel 4 is not funded by the licence fee but by the sale of advertising. However, as well as its commitments as a Public Service Broadcaster (PSB) in the UK, Channel 4 has other commitments that derive from its establishment in 1982 as a ‘publisher broadcaster’. These have been watered down over time and particularly since the early 1990s when the bold, radical style of Channel 4’s operations was severely curtailed and the channel became more focused on mainstream programming skewed towards younger audiences, while retaining a cutting edge on particular forms of programming such as news. I confess that I became far less interested in the station at that point. However, the other parts of its original remit remained in the sense that Channel 4 was required to commission all its programming from other TV companies and particularly from independents. In addition, this commissioning should include production outside London and the South East. This became particularly important when ITV ceased to be organised through regional franchises and became a single national network operation.
Film 4 is the film production and distribution arm of Channel 4, commissioning films since the channel’s outset. In the last 30 years, Film 4, alongside the BBC and BFI has been a major funder of independently produced British films. I would go so far as to suggest that if Channel 4 had not funded filmmakers in the 1980s through to the 2000s, the British film industry would probably have folded and become nothing more than an offshore facility for Hollywood productions. It might be argued that in reality that’s all the UK film industry has ever been except for its genuine studio period from the late 1930s to the early 1960s. Nevertheless, Channel 4 and Film 4 have been important in ensuring that smaller independent British films have been made, including films in Scotland, Ireland and Wales as well as English regions. In doing so they have been crucial in helping to develop the careers of filmmakers such as Shane Meadows.
It’s also true that the commissioning of programmes by the BBC and ITV from independents eventually followed the Channel 4 lead. Even so, to take away that possibility that Channel 4 might fund an independent to make Derry Girls in the North of Ireland or It’s a Sin about a group of gay men learning to live with HIV/AIDS in the 1990s would be very damaging to the media ecology in the UK. Both have been big hits with audiences, but would another broadcaster have commissioned them? The companies that made them are now quite large independents, some having been acquired by foreign multinationals, but many others are still small UK companies. On Tuesday this week 44 independent production companies paid for a full-page advertisement in the Telegraph newspaper, a major Tory-supporting media outlet, arguing that privatisation “would cost jobs, reduce investment, and place companies at risk in the nations and regions”. The ad was timed to attract attention at the Tory Conference in Manchester.
The government response has predictably argued that any buyer of Channel 4 would be required to abide by its PSB and other founding commitments. So, it would follow the ‘successful’ model of privatisation of the rail industry, postal service, energy and water etc, all of which are now a national disgrace? If the privatisation goes ahead the only likely buyers are going to be multinationals and these will be mostly US-owned corporations. Can we see Disney, Viacom or Warner Bros, supporting offices in Leeds and Bristol and funding shows like Derry Girls? Perhaps they would, but in the long term they are international capitalist enterprises with only profit as a long-term goal (Channel 4 is currently a not-for-profit corporation). Would Film 4 still exist as a funder? Wouldn’t the already high US content of the channel just increase? Do we really think that the UK government could force one of these corporations to stick to PSB regulation?
There is a second concern here that links the possible privatisation of Channel 4 to the rise in film production from the streamers, principally Netflix, Amazon, Disney and Apple. The Tories will argue that the streamers are producing films in the UK, lured by high quality skilled crews and facilities and tax concessions for ‘high-end television’ as well as feature films. There are several problems with this. First, the government has no clear cultural policy. It cries out for films and TV about ‘British values’, whatever they may be, but The Crown is the only Netflix production I can think of that fits the government request and that’s not exactly social realism. Are Netflix going to fund Shane Meadows (and would Shane want to be funded by them?). Second, dependence on dollar investment in UK film and TV is vulnerable to exchange rate changes and other factors. The streamers could decide to leave for a host of reasons and all the shiny new studio spaces currently being hurriedly built to lure the streamers would be empty. I don’t subscribe to Netflix or Amazon, Disney or Apple TV+. Dealing with multinational capitalist enterprises is a given of modern life but this quartet threaten the very future of British broadcasting. With a government seemingly determined to ‘subdue’ the BBC and create more commercial freedom, UK TV will become as US-dominated as UK film production. Channel 4 is one of the few organisations striving to protect independent filmmaking in the UK – and to help export the films produced. The privatisation must be stopped.
A heartfelt plea, and I feel the hurt here as Channel 4 is being ‘levelled up’ by moving the headquarters to Leeds just in time for it potentially to be dismantled. On the subject of big corporations and streaming I managed to catch ‘The Green Knight’ last weekend at one of the few venues available to me as I don’t stream, unfortunately the Everyman in Leeds. A fast food restaurant with an optional film.
At first I could not understand why a film with decidedly British interest and a distinguished cast and director was available ‘locally’ only at Home or Everyman but the answer was obvious. It is an Amazon Prime production and already available for streaming and only being given a brief mainstream outing to satisfy the Academy that it is in contention for Oscar next year. I quite enjoyed it but, how can I say, it was no ‘Excalibur’.
‘MediaNorth’ is an important campaigning organ on the British media. The September 2021 issue has an article apprising the attempt to sell of Channel 4. See the issue here.
Roy is raising an important aspect regarding British film.
As for John’s visit to Everyman – he obviously can suffer indignities I do not tolerate. I went once for a Leeds Festival premiere screening. I have never been back. And the bad news is that this year’s Leeds Film Festival is programmed around that venue and Vue. The latter suffered from a dodgy audio speaker on my last few visits.
It looks likely that we will be reduced to the Hyde Park, [only in August 2022]: BBC 4: and Talking Pictures.
I’m concerend about C4 seeming to offer weakened content of late, and Film 4 often feels more plugged into US audiences. I’m not saying that’s a good excuse for privatisation, far from it, but I miss the Channel 4/Film 4 days in the 80’s when they made films that had a specific relevance to British audiences and put them on UK tv the following week, may before Netflix was anyone’s dream or nightmare. It feels like we’re ceeding cinemas and streaming to the US, and selling off C4 wouldn’t help IMHO.
I think that C4 policy towards films has become very confusing, partly I’m guessing because of rights issues. Some films are shown on Channel4 but not on All4, i.e. don’t go to streaming. Since such films are usually on in the early hours it means that unless you record them they are gone. Film 4 itself is a pale shadow of what it once was in terms of foreign language productions. I still have hopes that the moves to Leeds and Bristol will do something to improve the UK content output. I wonder to what extent the success of Talking Pictures TV is taking older viewers away from C4?